Application of titanium metal materials on ships
The application of titanium alloy as hull structural material mainly includes three aspects: the pressure-resistant casing of the submarine, the pressure-resistant casing of the deep submersible and the shell of the surface vessel.
Submarine pressure housing
In terms of titanium for submarine pressure-resistant casings, the former Soviet Union was at the forefront of the world, opening up titanium alloy materials as a precedent for submarine pressure-resistant casings.
In 1968, the former Soviet Union (Russia) built the world's first titanium alloy multi-functional nuclear-powered submarine (Papa) with a displacement of 5,200 tons and a length of 100 meters.
At 400 meters, it is a revolutionary step in the application of titanium alloys to large-scale maritime structures.
Between 1974 and 1981, the former Soviet Union successively built a series of all-titanium shell nuclear-powered submarines (Alfa class to NATO) with a displacement of 2,300 tons, a length of 80 meters and a depth of 600 meters, of which the amount of titanium alloy used in each submarine reached As many as 2,000 tons, a total of seven ships were built, and the amount of titanium alloy reached more than 14,000 tons.
In 1983, the former Soviet Union built the Komsomolets, a large-scale titanium-shell nuclear-powered submarine, with a displacement of 5,880 tons, a displacement of 8,500 tons, a length of 117.5 meters, and a maximum depth of 1,200 meters. Titanium alloy The usage reached 4,000 tons. But unfortunately, the submarine sank in April 1989 due to fire.
1983-1992: The former Soviet Union (Russia) successively built four "Sierra" series titanium alloy pressure-resistant shell multi-purpose aggressive nuclear-powered submarines with a water displacement of 7,200 tons (type 945) and 7,600 tons (type 945A). The underwater displacement is 8100 tons (type 945) and 9100 tons (945A), the length is 110 meters, and the maximum depth is 750 meters. The amount of titanium alloy used is unknown. After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, the Sierra class submarine was forced to withdraw from service due to economic constraints. It is reported that Russia has restarted the repair of the Sierra nuclear submarine and will resume service in 2017.
From 1982 to 2000, the former Soviet Union (Russia) built 15 Acura-class ballistic missile submarines, with a submerged displacement of 12,770 tons, a length of 110 meters and a maximum depth of 600 meters. It is currently the main submarine of the Russian Navy. .
From 1986 to 2000, the former Soviet Union (Russia) also built 14 "Oscar" class and 6 "typhoon class" nuclear submarines, with a submarine displacement of more than 19,000 tons and 48,000 tons, respectively, with lengths of 155 meters and 171 meters. The depth of the dive is 500 meters and 400 meters, of which the typhoon class is the largest ballistic missile submarine of the former Soviet Union (Russia). The amount of titanium alloy material per ship reaches an astonishing 9000 tons, which is close to the current annual output of titanium processed materials in China. About 20%.
With the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Russia's plan to manufacture nuclear-powered submarines using a titanium alloy as a pressure-resistant casing has been put on hold for a long time or not built as originally planned. However, with the gradual recovery of the Russian economy and the political needs, Russia reopened the manufacturing and restoration of titanium alloy pressure-resistant shell nuclear submarines around 2000.
Since the start of the Yasen-class nuclear-powered attack submarine in 1993, due to funding problems, it has not been delivered until May 2010. The submarine also uses a titanium alloy double-shell structure with a submerged displacement of 13,800 tons, a length of 120 meters and a depth of 600 meters. It is planned to build 12 ships. Delivered to the Navy in 2010, the 210-class multi-purpose attack nuclear submarine code-named AS-12 is currently the most outstanding representative of nuclear submarines with a submersible displacement of 2,000 tons, a length of 71 meters, a width of 8 meters, and a maximum submarine speed of 45 knots ( About 90Km/h), the maximum depth can reach 6000 meters. The submarine still uses the double-shell structure commonly used by Russian submarines, but in order to achieve the designed depth of dive, the outer layer is still a titanium alloy hull, while the inner casing is connected by six huge titanium alloy spherical shells. To withstand the enormous deep sea pressure.
The former Soviet Union (Russia) has formed a complete system of titanium alloy materials and application technology for submarine pressure-resistant casings, which has also paid a high price. For example, from 1960 to 1970, the former Soviet scientists spent a total of ten years. Only solved the welding technology of titanium alloy. Table 5-2 shows the construction and related performance of the Russian all-titanium pressure-resistant shell submarine. At present, the titanium alloy used in the pressure submersible of Russian submarines is mainly two kinds of titanium alloys: Ti-4A1-2V (ПТ-3B) and Ti-2A1-2.5Zr (ПТ-7М). The titanium alloy used in the external pressure-resistant shell of the 210-class multi-purpose attack nuclear submarine and the six pressure-resistant spherical shells inside is a high-performance titanium alloy newly developed in Russia. The specific grades and chemical composition are unknown.