Titanium was discovered in 1791, and the first pure titanium was made in 1910, with a hundred years passed. The reason is: titanium is very lively at high temperatures, it is easy and oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and other elements of the compound, to extract the pure titanium need very harsh conditions.
Industry commonly used sulfuric acid decomposition of ilmenite method for the preparation of titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide and then made from titanium. Concentrated sulfuric acid treatment of ground ilmenite (concentrate), the following chemical reaction occurs:
FeTiO3 + 3H2SO4 == Ti (SO4) 2 + FeSO4 + 3H2O
FeTiO3 + 2H2SO4 == TiOSO4 + FeSO4 + 2H2O
FeO + H2SO4 == FeSO4 + H2O
Fe2O3 + 3H2SO4 == Fe2 (SO4) 3 + 3H2O
In order to remove the impurity Fe2 (SO4) 3, iron scrap is added and Fe3 + is reduced to Fe2 +, and then the solution is cooled to below 273K so that FeSO4.7H2O (green spirit) crystallizes as a by-product.
Ti (SO4) 2 and TiOSO4 hydrolysates white metatitanic acid precipitation, the reaction is:
Ti (SO4) 2 + H2O == TiOSO4 + H2SO4
TiOSO4 + 2H2O == H2TiO3 + H2SO4
Calcined partial titanate that obtained titanium dioxide:
H2TiO3 == TiO2 + H2O
Industrial titanium metal reduction by metal thermal reduction of titanium tetrachloride. TiO2 (or natural rutile) and carbon powder are mixed and heated to 1000 ~ 1100K, chlorinated, and the generated TiCl4 and steam are condensed.
TiO2 + 2C + 2Cl2 = TiCl4 + 2CO-
Porous titanium sponge was obtained by reducing TiCl4 with molten magnesium at 1070 K in argon:
TiCl4 + 2Mg = 2MgCl2 + Ti
This sponge titanium after crushing, into the vacuum arc furnace smelting, and finally made of various titanium.